Ruler Analytics phone tracking works by overriding the phone number on your website and replacing it with a unique phone number for each individual visitor. When the number is called the call is routed to your original number.
Each time a new visitor lands on the website the phone number is changed by Ruler accordingly.
As Ruler is able to match the number to a unique visitor, Ruler is also able to tell you more information about the visitor who called such as the marketing method that drove the visitor to the website (E.g. Google AdWords and the keyword) and the pages the visitor looked at etc.
Ruler is also able to tell you the callers number, how long the call lasted, how long it took to answer and listen to a recording of the phone call.